The Richat Structure,
also known as the Eye of the Sahara and Guelb er Richat, is a prominent
circular feature in the Sahara desert of west–central Mauritania near
Ouadane. Photo by cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin and the Russian Space
Agency Press Services.

The structure is a deeply eroded, slightly elliptical, 40 km in
diameter dome. Differential erosion of resistant layers of quartzite has
created high-relief circular cuestas. Its center consists of a
siliceous breccia covering an area that is at least 3 km in diameter.

“Repeated trauma in childhood forms and deforms the personality. The
child trapped in an abusive environment is faced with formidable tasks
of adaptation. She must find a way to preserve a sense of trust in
people who are untrustworthy, safety in a situation that is unsafe,
control in a situation that is terrifyingly unpredictable, power in a
situation of helplessness. Unable to care for or protect herself, she
must compensate for the failures of adult care and protection with the
only means at her disposal, an immature system of psychological

   Judith Lewis Herman